하남콜걸☳출장부르는법♦하남가산 안마방【하남안마방 퇴폐】┡《하남부산 안마방》⇠하남안마방 할머니➥하남남자 전립선 마사지◁하남코코넛 오일 두피 마사지★하남마사지 ssul£하남안마방 퇴폐

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

군산출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

하남콜걸➵24시출장샵«하남가산 안마방【하남청소년 안마방】☪《하남출장안마 가격》♥하남천안 조건➵하남안마방 영업시간▣하남이태원 마사지┉하남유흥인 토렌트◄하남대전 모텔 다방

The governments of more than 190 nations 구리안마방 똥까시 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

하남콜걸▷예약コ하남가산 안마방【하남베이징 안마방】ⓔ《하남논산 안마방》○하남부평 마사지ღ하남마사지 수면실ユ하남별내 안마방✌하남조건 출장유하남중국 대딸

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

하남콜걸⚘출장부르는법メ하남가산 안마방【하남부산 하단 출장】⇠《하남호구포 마사지》♖하남부산 사상 출장↚하남백석동 마사지↨하남안마방 vip╪하남두정동 마사지ⓔ하남트레이너 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

하남콜걸♞24시출장샵W하남가산 안마방【하남다방 콜】╬《하남이발소 마사지》┖하남24시 마사지㊣하남안마방 미시☷하남강서 안마방╄하남태국마사지 가격♂하남필승 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 원주안마방 단속 확률 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

하남콜걸✄출장부르는법♟하남가산 안마방【하남오창 마사지】➺《하남자전거 안마방》↼하남콜걸 후기♬하남만짜이 마사지═하남오목교 안마방╬하남강동 안마방☂하남맛사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – dhc2016.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

하남콜걸하남양재역 안마방

  • 울산싱가포르 마사지
  • 하남동암 마사지
  • 하남콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    하남콜걸➚예약┌하남가산 안마방【하남마사지 19】╋《하남안마방 시간제》〓하남답십리 마사지┒하남거제 안마방 추천⇜하남유흥인 토렌트▌하남구미 모텔 가격╞하남손목터널증후군 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 강원도양곡 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 천안출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    진주출장샵
    문경마사지 크림 수원출장안마 수원출장소이스홍성
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    하남콜걸×예약▦하남가산 안마방【하남강서 마사지】♝《하남근육통 마사지》⇇하남청주 마사지✉하남마사지 정보★하남호치민 안마방↕하남안마방 내부┯하남산호동 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 정읍이천 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    하남콜걸☑예약금없는출장샵⇍하남가산 안마방【하남아로마마사지 꿀팁】→《하남안마방 혼자》┧하남안마방 수면실▶하남월곶 마사지►하남모텔 젤☭하남오피 투샷×하남안마방 항문

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대구출장샵 .

    경산산남동 마사지
    신안구글 재펜 카지노사이트 진주강남역 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    하남콜걸┦예약1하남가산 안마방【하남분당 마사지】→《하남청소년 안마방》⊥하남안마방 출근부◎하남코스프레 안마방♮하남부산 출장 서비스♢하남남성 마사지⊕하남전효성 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 서울출장샵 .

    하남콜걸╓24시출장샵✑하남가산 안마방【하남대딸방】テ《하남하남 안마방》┉하남강원 랜드 근처 마사지✲하남대전 마사지 후기₪하남부산역 안마방▦하남용암동 마사지π하남섹스 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대구출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 구례용현동 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    하남콜걸✐예약금없는출장샵☾하남가산 안마방【하남중앙동 안마방】 《하남울산 안마방 추천》❦하남고등학생 안마방◢하남고양이 안마방⇃하남남자 전립선 마사지┛하남대구 마사지▬하남해운대 모텔

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    하남콜걸☼예약금없는출장샵»하남가산 안마방【하남피파 안마방】⇏《하남스타 안마방》ナ하남경포대 안마방§하남남양주 마사지➢하남다낭 마사지➳하남포항 마사지 후기✑하남호치민 1군 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 오산안마방 cctv , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 수원출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 김천크리스마스 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    하남콜걸▦24시출장샵✓하남가산 안마방【하남강남 안마방 후기】↔《하남강동구 안마방》╋하남에이스 안마방┯하남태국 마사지✏하남까치산 안마방✔하남성장판 마사지☞하남코 높아지는 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, jasonboy.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 포항출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 바카라사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    하남콜걸━예약금없는출장샵┑하남가산 안마방【하남천안 오피스】“《하남비엔티엔 마사지》╃하남어깨통증 마사지↺하남한물간 연예인 안마방➴하남광진구 안마방✆하남타이 마사지 서비스✕하남안마방 cctv

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    화성충북혁신도시 마사지
    전주출장안마 안산아로마 마사지 효능 온라인카지노
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    하남콜걸ε출장부르는법➹하남가산 안마방【하남국 노】♛《하남일본인 안마방》♥하남광혜원 마사지ヒ하남대전 안마방 후기π하남아산 출장 만남╗하남목포 안마방0하남천안 출장 대행

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.하남콜걸하남시흥 마사지→하남여인숙 가격◦《하남예약금 없는 출장 샵》하남마사지 볼☁하남출장 마사지 썰↔하남춘천 안마방✓하남이태원 마사지●anma4you.xyz예약금없는출장샵하남쿠알라룸푸르 마사지⇘하남김원중 안마방♛〖하남셀프 어깨 마사지〗하남마사지 gif★하남엄지 눈 근육 마사지◣하남평택역 마사지☱하남하단 마사지■하남콜걸포항커플 마사지 후기하남마닐라 마사지↕하남마사지 모음↾{하남계룡 안마방}하남제주도 안마방☴하남안마방 일베┧하남강남 안마방 가격┠하남수안보 안마방↺하남포항 터미널 모텔◎하남남성 왁싱☀﹛하남마사지 젤﹜하남여친 마사지⇎하남안마방 물다이 몰카✗하남수유리 안마방╄하남안마방 20살♪하남시흥동 안마방♫하남아주동 마사지サ《하남서혜부 마사지 란》하남미약 마사지☃하남안성 마사지☁하남양산 안마방⇛하남전립선 마사지 야동★하남익산 모텔 가격☵하남양배추 안마방★『하남파타야 마사지』하남안마방 풋잡☍하남조건 만남 카톡”하남시흥 안마방╠ 하남포항 북구 안마방♡24시출장샵안양태국마사지 후기예약하남서해부 마사지☲하남마사지 사이트ツ(하남막탄 마사지)하남송탄 여관☪하남출장 마사지 썰☂하남여관 다방╭하남용인 마사지▥하남콜걸하남콜걸원주출장샵하남안마하남석계역 안마방하남대구 여관하남사각근 마사지하남콜걸하남거제 옥포 안마방▣하남얼굴 경락 마사지 방법⇪〈하남종아리 마사지 기계〉하남전립선 마사지↹하남안마방 성병♤하남안마방 핸드폰⊙하남마사지 오일✖화순아가씨 썰

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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