단양출장샵▫예약◐단양인천 서구 마사지【단양대구 출장마사지】⇖『단양안마방 요도염』╬단양부산 안마방 추천◇단양대구 서구 안마방☣단양진주 오피▪단양club 마사지⇠단양주갤 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

광주출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

단양출장샵♪예약┦단양인천 서구 마사지【단양오창 안마방】┎『단양마산 모텔 추천』⇔단양홍성 안마방┒단양출장 안마☂단양아비게일 마사지 토렌트♧단양대학동 마사지ο단양처음 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 구례석계 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

단양출장샵✄예약♩단양인천 서구 마사지【단양여수 마사지】⇛『단양부산 모텔 아가씨』◦단양출장미인아가씨√단양콜걸출장안마”단양시엠립 밤문화 마사지⇃단양다방 콜╠ 단양아프리카 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

단양출장샵☎예약▥단양인천 서구 마사지【단양호텔 출장】┛『단양논현동 안마방』►단양아비게일 마사지➷단양영등포 마사지▧단양유흥 마사지カ단양여성 전용 마사지✯단양일본 마사지 품번

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 창원출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

단양출장샵.24시출장샵⇂단양인천 서구 마사지【단양일본 마사지 av】▫『단양일산 모텔 추천』⇣단양노량진 마사지⚘단양안마방 벌금﹃단양여성전용 마사지 후기¤단양한국야동 안마방⇚단양동남아 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 밀양평촌 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

단양출장샵☞출장부르는법♥단양인천 서구 마사지【단양일본 마사지 야동】⇚『단양콧대 마사지 효과』♟단양해수욕장 마사지 토렌트┉단양남포동 안마방❥단양맛사지☍단양음경 마사지░단양타이 마사지 팁

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 진주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

단양출장샵단양태국마사지 불법

  • 성주멜라니
  • 단양안마방 도촬
  • 단양출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    단양출장샵➛예약╝단양인천 서구 마사지【단양마사지 섹스】♪『단양승무원 마사지』✂단양부산 안마방♀단양안마방 ts⇌단양하남 마사지✣단양강릉 여관☐단양부산역 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 서울베트남 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, bein.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    목포출장샵
    인제곤지암 마사지 전주출장안마 청양안마방 ssul
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 온라인카지노 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    단양출장샵☃예약☼단양인천 서구 마사지【단양신원동 마사지】⇃『단양안마방 정보』┱단양유선 마사지⇥단양딥티슈 마사지×단양장 마사지ヨ단양동두천 마사지┒단양중국전통마사지 팁

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 철원로드샵 단속 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    단양출장샵↜예약ღ단양인천 서구 마사지【단양일본 성인 마사지】◑『단양안마방 시간제』▨단양연신내 안마방✿단양안마방 후기❤단양콜걸후기⇛단양송도 안마방◀단양칠곡3지구 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    증평마사지 초대남
    남양주일본 오일 마사지 대전출장안마 속초마사지 배우는곳
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    단양출장샵¤출장부르는법⊿단양인천 서구 마사지【단양천안 출장마사지】↶『단양안마방 오랄』╍단양세종 마사지ハ단양하당 마사지↟단양gigi rivera 마사지►단양조건 출장↷단양미금역 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    단양출장샵┵24시출장샵╬ 단양인천 서구 마사지【단양안마방 러시아】↩『단양용원 마사지』♡단양안마방 짜파게티❁단양안마방 싼▨단양지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지☱단양의정부 모텔 가격κ단양포이 펫 카지노 롤링

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 수원출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 서울 마사지 강간 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    단양출장샵◈예약금없는출장샵╗단양인천 서구 마사지【단양다리 마사지 기계】♨『단양미약 마사지』▬단양거제도 모텔 추천↖단양중국 마사지 가격♖단양울산 마사지モ단양신천 안마방☆단양원룸 출장

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    단양출장샵⇜출장부르는법╓단양인천 서구 마사지【단양승모근 마사지】☾『단양마사지 1위 작품』U단양헬로우 드림▲단양행신 안마방☇단양서양 안마방▶단양에스코트 모델ψ단양별내 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 청주송파구 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The lovedonggu.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 진주출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 평택마사지 후기 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that jub.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    단양출장샵⇛출장부르는법♞단양인천 서구 마사지【단양성남 마사지】▲『단양모텔출장마사지샵』↕단양인천 안마방 후기◁단양구의 마사지◐단양마사지 토렌토ロ단양안마방 통화기록↱단양호치민 마사지 추천

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, bein.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 광주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 전주출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    단양출장샵ロ24시출장샵♦단양인천 서구 마사지【단양안마방 미시】↽『단양오산 안마방』◑단양대구 모텔 촌☰단양평촌 안마방♗단양하드코어 안마방➼단양지압 나무위키⇊단양여자친구 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    나주중국 마사지 체험기
    군산출장안마 부산안마방 전화 egw.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    단양출장샵♜24시출장샵♈단양인천 서구 마사지【단양동암역 마사지】✃『단양창원 안마방 후기』◙단양강남 안마방 추천↷단양안마방 골뱅이☀단양고시촌 안마방▲단양주안 안마방◄단양출장소이스

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.단양출장샵단양광주 스타 안마방★단양마사지 동영상ソ『단양안중 모텔』단양일본놈 길거리 한국여자 꼬셔사 마사지☋단양경산 사우나 마사지♕단양춘천 모텔 가격╝단양보지 마사지⇪카지노사이트출장부르는법단양충주 안마방◎단양예약금 없는 출장┈(단양마누라 마사지)단양창원 안마방⇢단양태국 에스코트☰단양김포 안마방⇛단양천안 유흥“단양출장샵광명멜라니단양장한평 안마방ヒ단양안마방 순서╰「단양부산역 마사지」단양강남 전립선 마사지▨단양안마방 몰카 tumblr¤단양부산 안마방 추천☪단양흑인 마사지┳단양양산 마사지↝단양발마사지◐﹛단양제주도 안마방 추천﹜단양마사지 망가◐단양콜걸출장안마┘단양지압 나무위키┪단양마사지 나무위키┦단양아프리카 마사지⇃단양화성시 안마방☪(단양산본 안마방)단양신림동 안마방☺단양질 마사지➼단양마사지 구인☐단양피로회복 마사지↤단양호텔 걸☢단양전민동 마사지▒「단양부평 안마방」단양승모근 마사지♗단양강릉 안마방╡단양유흥인 토렌트⇩단양마사지 홈런▤예약금없는출장샵경상남도kcm 안마방예약단양인덕원 안마방✡단양안마방 김치남◀(단양안마방 일베)단양탄트라 마사지⇂단양일본 마사지 tumblr┓단양국산 안마방 몰카♤단양여자 안마방⇞단양출장샵단양출장샵카지노사이트단양마사지 레전드단양범계 마사지단양일본 성인 마사지단양종아리 근육 마사지단양출장샵단양마사지 공떡↣단양상주 안마방➛<단양마사지 tumblr>단양마사지◐단양옥계 마사지●단양안마방 혼자♫단양태평역 안마방◘철원타이 마사지 퇴폐

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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