통영콜걸☻예약➻통영출장 안마【통영마사지 가격】↺〖통영안마방 초이스.mp4〗チ통영안마방 동창§통영서현역 안마방↬통영눈 마사지 기계╣통영미금 안마방ハ통영모텔 찌라시

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

전주출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

통영콜걸U예약•통영출장 안마【통영독산동 마사지】♢〖통영서해부 마사지〗↺통영창동 안마방♐통영잇몸 마사지┋통영신천 모텔 가격♠통영한국 마사지ニ통영울산 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 통영해피 오렌지 출장 샵 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

통영콜걸♪ 예약ソ통영출장 안마【통영어스파】⇪〖통영가산 안마방〗↹통영인계동 안마방 후기ア통영중국전통마사지☎통영강원 랜드 근처 마사지╝통영베이징 안마방♣통영최음 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

통영콜걸⊙24시출장샵☶통영출장 안마【통영여성 전용 마사지 알바】╪〖통영강남 안마방 위치〗┸통영진주 오피↺통영전주 안마방┠통영마사지 품번 추천╜통영영종도 안마방☆통영항문 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대구출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

통영콜걸╓24시출장샵☳통영출장 안마【통영정액 마사지】▨〖통영동대문 안마방〗▒통영탈모 마사지卐통영신원동 마사지♈통영익산 모텔 가격╧통영체코 마사지 fc2◦통영마사지 사이트

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 고양전주 여관 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

통영콜걸»예약금없는출장샵┇통영출장 안마【통영인천공항 마사지】✤〖통영마사지 gif〗▶통영마사지 효능☼통영비염 마사지キ통영여자 안마방♦통영여관 다방ツ통영위례 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 바카라사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

통영콜걸통영상남동 마사지

  • 충청북도용원 마사지
  • 통영가슴 커지는 마사지
  • 통영콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    통영콜걸ワ예약┃통영출장 안마【통영안마방 동영상】┹〖통영하노이 vip 마사지〗☪통영옆광대 마사지↘통영강릉 마사지♘통영다낭 마사지 가격┨통영안마방 빨리싸면♢통영엘림 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 양산창원 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 원주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    오산삼송역 안마방 카지노사이트 충청남도안마방 avi
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 전주출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    통영콜걸┯예약금없는출장샵┹통영출장 안마【통영중국마사지 후기】↾〖통영모텔 티켓〗✦통영여대생 마사지↕통영종아리 마사지 기계☎통영산남동 마사지☰통영압구정 마사지↔통영안마방 입싸

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 보령상하이 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    통영콜걸↽출장부르는법⇪통영출장 안마【통영마사지 젤】☣〖통영대전 황궁 마사지〗↺통영철구 마사지►통영안마방 오랄”통영홍진호 안마방⊿통영상주 안마방┒통영안마방 토렌트

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 원주출장샵 .

    음성노원 마사지
    논산소라넷 마사지 카지노사이트 고성안마방 몰 카
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    통영콜걸╓출장부르는법►통영출장 안마【통영다낭 vip 마사지】♧〖통영안마방 엄마〗☄통영선릉 안마방↧통영안마방 신림✉통영출장외국인▬통영대학동 마사지↮통영출장 마사지 후기

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장샵 .

    통영콜걸▌24시출장샵╍통영출장 안마【통영오피】♕〖통영피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지〗✄통영발 마사지♥통영콜걸만남➽통영라오스 마사지θ통영운서동 안마방ツ통영동대구 여관

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대전출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 논산안양역 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    통영콜걸◘출장부르는법√통영출장 안마【통영검단 안마방】╗〖통영대구 콜〗╨통영사상 마사지➷통영광주 안마방 추천↤통영응암 마사지☾통영요괴 마사지⇟통영대구 동대구역 모텔

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    통영콜걸♥예약큐통영출장 안마【통영수안보 안마방】╰〖통영쿤타이 마사지〗ο통영부천 마사지⇍통영김해 장유 안마방◈통영인계동 안마방 후기✲통영타이 마사지 후기▷통영다리 마사지 기계

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 마산텀블러 여관 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 울산출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 파주출장소이스홍성 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 목포출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    통영콜걸✡예약금없는출장샵┨통영출장 안마【통영오사카 안마방】•〖통영모텔 티켓〗→통영제주 마사지➳통영언양 마사지⇃통영마사지 gif«통영도쿄 마사지⇉통영금천구 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 원주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 포항출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    통영콜걸タ예약タ통영출장 안마【통영쿤타이 마사지】☃〖통영검빛 경마 검색〗▪통영사당역 안마방♖통영수내역 마사지╇통영김원중 안마방▨통영요괴 마사지▬통영어스파

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    제주텀블러 여관
    제주출장안마 무주김포 타이 마사지 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    통영콜걸║24시출장샵↕통영출장 안마【통영모텔 콜】☎〖통영중국 마사지 후기〗♞통영삼산동 마사지ユ통영동남아 마사지ネ통영서울역 안마방レ통영마사지 영어╟통영19금 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.통영콜걸통영태국마사지 후기☁통영강동구 마사지░〖통영타이마사지 팁〗통영군포 안마방♭통영대딸⇇통영휴게텔 안마방☊통영출장마사지◕바카라사이트출장부르는법통영여친 마사지╆통영일반인 마사지 torrent╃『통영마사지 애무』통영야동 마사지⇁통영사천 안마방«통영석남동 안마방╳통영안마방 골뱅이⊙통영콜걸양주베트남 마사지 야동통영타이페이 마사지┠통영마사지 받다가┢【통영세r시 마사지】통영세부 마사지 엑스트라←통영출장 마사지 썰►통영검단 마사지♖통영안마방 ssul╝통영마사지 fc2▪통영진주시 안마방┞﹝통영상록수역 안마방﹞통영낙성대 안마방☎통영레즈 안마방↽통영마사지 수면┳통영마사지 알바♡통영성감 마사지╊통영마사지 효능☾﹝통영마사지 의자﹞통영손목터널증후군 마사지╡통영아주동 마사지┌통영정선 마사지◕통영안마방 단발◥통영성인 에이미㍿통영광주 모텔╓﹝통영안마방 69﹞통영김해 장유 안마방✍통영천안 오피스╯통영남자 전립선 마사지◈통영안마방 비비기↕예약금없는출장샵영주방콕 마사지 추천예약통영중국 대딸┾통영서현역 마사지⇚〔통영대구 출장 마사지〕통영두통 완화 마사지┊통영해수욕장 마사지 토렌트┛통영한국야동 안마방↾통영신림동 마사지◐통영콜걸통영콜걸카지노사이트통영장요근 마사지통영안마방 싸면 끝통영안마방 왕가슴녀통영영종도 안마방통영콜걸통영칠곡3지구 마사지☣통영포항 마사지♠〖통영수유 마사지〗통영홈 타이 마사지”통영안마방 카드결제キ통영포천 마사지╝통영철산 안마방☆익산목포 여관

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics