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  • 홍천콜걸╜출장부르는법↯홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천섹슈얼 마사지」⇚『홍천커플 마사지 방법』┤홍천치앙마이 마사지─홍천갓비비 마사지►홍천모텔출장┃홍천인천 안마방☼홍천전립선 마사지 부작용

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    바카라사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    홍천콜걸✆예약금없는출장샵⇈홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임」•『홍천경락 마사지』⊥홍천감성마사지란₪홍천아가씨 썰╚홍천출장 안마↖홍천원룸 출장↯홍천출장샵강추

    The governments of more than 190 nations 보령동탄 마사지 후기 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    홍천콜걸♬예약금없는출장샵✉홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천노량진 마사지」U『홍천가경동 안마방』➴홍천마사지 후기↖홍천안산 마사지 추천❉홍천안마방 태국녀↶홍천안동 안마방☑홍천출장마사지샵

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    홍천콜걸♥24시출장샵→홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천림프선 마사지」↺『홍천충주 안마방』ロ홍천출장 오피♜홍천마사지 만화♖홍천배 마사지♈홍천시화 안마방⊿홍천안마방 텀블러

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 창원출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    홍천콜걸━예약큐홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천순천 안마방」➡『홍천안마방 하늘이』♚홍천자전거 안마방μ홍천광주 대딸방↡홍천충주 마사지┥홍천고현 안마방➳홍천발 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 용인팔 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    홍천콜걸♥예약⇗홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천경산 사우나 마사지」☷『홍천덕천 마사지』♨홍천아내 마사지❂홍천허리통증 마사지░홍천고양이 안마방↬홍천수유리 안마방╗홍천오야넷 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 포항출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    홍천콜걸홍천여자친구 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    홍천콜걸◁예약❤홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천스웨디시 마사지」┳『홍천동대문 마사지』▨홍천포항 타이 마사지┗홍천눈붓기빼는 마사지☚ 홍천출장샵예약포항«홍천음경 마사지┛홍천출장 만남 보증금

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 고창서면 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 울산출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    대전출장샵
    나주선릉 안마방 천안출장샵 포천군산 모텔 추천
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 광주출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    홍천콜걸┋예약♛홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천마스카 안마방」╪『홍천체코 마사지 fc2』✆홍천비 안마방↪홍천출장업계위↤홍천휴게텔 안마방 차이ⓛ홍천포항 마사지 후기↛홍천중국모델 슈가

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 거창맹인 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    홍천콜걸♡24시출장샵╩홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천경산 사우나 마사지」╆『홍천안마방 풋잡』↬홍천수암 마사지◊홍천안마방 역립▲홍천안마방 영어로☽홍천저주파 마사지║홍천서울 출장 후기

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장샵 .

    제천부산 안마방 후기
    제주도만남 dr-choi.xyz 충주출장샵 예약금
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    홍천콜걸☈24시출장샵✖홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천안마방 아쿠아」❥『홍천안마방 김치남』™홍천아마 시안⊙홍천하노이 마사지♖홍천누드 마사지♗홍천이기광 안마방⇞홍천간석오거리 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    홍천콜걸⇖24시출장샵»홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천아스카 키라라 마사지」☌『홍천자카르타 마사지』►홍천피부 마사지⇐홍천거제 마사지⇂홍천1인샵 마사지ヨ홍천미금역 마사지➚홍천미약 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And lemondeacademy.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 김제김포 타이 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    홍천콜걸↕예약금없는출장샵➻홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천고양이 안마방」♨『홍천중국 마사지』イ홍천건대 마사지➶홍천기흥구청 마사지➳홍천강남 마사지⇛홍천세부 안마방↷홍천구디 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    홍천콜걸〓예약✿홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천안마방 유출」⇋『홍천범일동 안마방』➴홍천조건 만남 서울☻홍천모텔 tumblr❃홍천마사지 핸플♝홍천안마방 순서♥홍천안마방 부산

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 영광천호 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The okbari.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. anma4you.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 영동안마방 가는 법 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 평택출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    홍천콜걸╟예약금없는출장샵╒홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천수안보 안마방」✒『홍천오피걸』⊿홍천대구 커플 동영상╜홍천안마방 나무위키►홍천강서구청 안마방⊙홍천마사지 야.동↛홍천천안 만남

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 바카라사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    홍천콜걸➨예약]홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천신천 모텔 추천」♟『홍천변비 마사지』⇀홍천국산 마사지⇠홍천아로마마사지 꿀팁↯홍천긴장성 두통 마사지┩홍천전주 모텔 추천ヤ홍천흑인 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    포천해변 마사지
    전주출장샵 고창일본식 안마방 천안출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    홍천콜걸☇출장부르는법▣홍천안마방 싸면 끝「홍천안마방 영어로」↱『홍천안마방 무한샷』カ홍천거제 안마방 추천➻홍천안마방 서울✯홍천안마방 똥꼬↼홍천안마방 경찰◁홍천안산 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.홍천콜걸홍천도쿄 마사지✐홍천태국 마사지 토렌트◑『홍천조건 카페』홍천커플 마사지 방법❉홍천성대 마사지♥홍천부산 수영 안마방♥홍천센슈얼 마사지┇카지노사이트24시출장샵홍천출장소이스.홍천태국 에스코트☜<홍천사각근 마사지>홍천소주잔 마사지↑홍천안마방 애무⇃홍천안마방 투샷♤홍천청주 용암동 안마방➺홍천콜걸의왕피파 안마방홍천와이프 마사지▬홍천정왕 안마방┙‹홍천안마방 빡촌›홍천의정부 안마방 추천☲홍천사가정 마사지█홍천중국 안마방☐홍천아로마 마사지 효능✐홍천까치산 마사지█홍천유부녀 마사지☱《홍천안마방 카운터》홍천신림 모텔◄홍천사상 마사지╪홍천일본 해수욕장 마사지☂홍천pornhub 안마방◕홍천화정 마사지⇤홍천정자역 마사지┫<홍천대딸방>홍천하드코어 안마방☼홍천전민동 마사지ワ홍천안마방 사까시◣홍천구리 마사지ⓛ홍천마송 여관☃홍천춘천 마사지 후기♐〖홍천국산 마사지〗홍천하마사키 마오 마사지▀홍천엄태웅 안마방⇜홍천선릉역 안마방┖홍천마사지 porn◎24시출장샵대구선릉역 안마방예약금없는출장샵홍천아중리 안마방⇥홍천출장대행▲﹛홍천안마방 단속시간﹜홍천마사지 검색♀ 홍천삼산동 안마방═홍천안마방 구분↴홍천종로 안마방⇛홍천콜걸홍천콜걸수원출장샵홍천안마방 움짤홍천오피스텔 마사지홍천얼굴 작아지는 마사지홍천안마홍천콜걸홍천정액 마사지◎홍천대화역 마사지☎《홍천강남 왁싱샵》홍천우에하라 아이 마사지➶홍천안마방 대기»홍천허리 마사지⇘홍천부산 서면 안마방╩함양태국마사지 후기

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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