출장부르는법
  • 김포안마방 싼
  • 온라인카지노
  • 천안출장샵
  • 증평출장마사wl
  • 김포출장안마δ예약✓김포호구포 마사지〖김포영등포역 안마방〗✡﹛김포연예인 마사지﹜♬김포온양 마사지☆김포쿠알라룸푸르 마사지❀김포렉시벨 마사지➸김포니시미야 코노미 마사지♪김포일본 마사지 토렌트

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    군산출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    김포출장안마유출장부르는법❤김포호구포 마사지〖김포마포 마사지〗√﹛김포안마방 홈런﹜✍김포동서울 안마방コ김포부산역 모텔 가격☂김포강남역 마사지χ김포안마방 하드▪김포간석동 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 안산계산동 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    김포출장안마✆출장부르는법ν김포호구포 마사지〖김포일본 마사지〗◊﹛김포얼굴 마사지﹜♮김포아산 안마방╙김포방이동 여관┕김포마사지 추천┯김포천호 안마방┼김포타이 아로마 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    김포출장안마♪예약☜김포호구포 마사지〖김포태국 마사지〗◎﹛김포삼산동 안마방﹜ツ김포일산 안마방✿김포안마방 오르가즘↪김포상해 마사지0김포머리 마사지✐김포안마방 스킬

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 수원출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    김포출장안마☎예약╬김포호구포 마사지〖김포안마방 레베카〗⇍﹛김포서울 출장샵﹜☠김포타이 마사지 팁×김포까치산 안마방➵김포마사지☼김포안마방 용어♨김포크라운제이 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 부산영천 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    김포출장안마★예약금없는출장샵‿김포호구포 마사지〖김포마사지 할인〗⇂﹛김포출장 조건﹜ル김포포항 타이마사지﹄김포마사지 노출☰김포마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 뜻◆김포마사지 테라피◐김포손목 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대구출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    김포출장안마김포최음제 마사지

  • 경주가슴커지는 마사지
  • 김포pj 안마방
  • 김포출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    김포출장안마サ24시출장샵⇙김포호구포 마사지〖김포노원 마사지 추천〗★﹛김포nhdta 마사지﹜╓김포대산 마사지λ김포대전 유성 안마방♜김포마사지황형♜김포마사지 효과┩김포신원동 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 동인천남포동 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 원주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    아산24시 마사지 부산출장안마 성주다낭 호텔 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 구미출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    김포출장안마➳24시출장샵☃김포호구포 마사지〖김포대전 모텔 다방〗♕﹛김포겨드랑이 마사지﹜♣김포안마방 퇴폐☳김포오류동 안마방┻김포출장대행▌김포정자역 안마방↺김포두피 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 태안다방 콜 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    김포출장안마╋예약☺김포호구포 마사지〖김포군산 안마방〗⇟﹛김포얼굴 경락 마사지 방법﹜╮김포안마방 위치◊김포누들누 드タ김포안마방 어플✥김포안마방 fc2♩김포강남 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 창원출장안마 .

    서산송도 안마방
    수원강남역 안마방 온라인카지노 함평안마방 fc2
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    김포출장안마⇞출장부르는법⇦김포호구포 마사지〖김포승모근 마사지〗☒﹛김포마사지 porn﹜ヤ김포건전한 마사지✕김포부천 안마방⚘김포천안 출장 만남☾김포구월동 안마방◣김포마사지 단속 시간

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 원주출장샵 .

    김포출장안마➽예약☆김포호구포 마사지〖김포출장 조건〗ミ﹛김포출장 마사지 후기﹜┛김포한물간 연예인 안마방▩김포안마방 빨리싸면ξ김포연수구 안마방↾김포안마방 무한➵김포마사지 홈런

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 광주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 파주호텔 출장 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    김포출장안마ア24시출장샵»김포호구포 마사지〖김포나고야 여성전용 마사지〗▨﹛김포마사지 효능﹜✡김포인계동 안마방 후기↶김포마사지 도구☞김포음부 마사지▶김포군산 마사지◎김포서울 조건 카톡

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    김포출장안마↧출장부르는법☠김포호구포 마사지〖김포서혜부 마사지 란〗⇣﹛김포태국 마사지 torrent﹜⇈김포강릉 모텔 가격ヤ김포실제 일본 안마방┎김포상대보호구역⇎김포다낭 밤문화 마사지♚김포서귀포 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 칠곡유성 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The cpsblog.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 천안출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 문경군대 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 천안출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    김포출장안마◦출장부르는법✉김포호구포 마사지〖김포마사지 후기〗➥﹛김포최음제 마사지﹜┣김포공유 마사지⇌김포타이마사지 꿀팁↺김포안마방 후기█김포양재 안마방┏김포출장만남

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 군산출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 진주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 포항출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    김포출장안마☺예약금없는출장샵█김포호구포 마사지〖김포마사지 강좌〗φ﹛김포마사지 하다가﹜♩김포안마방 콘돔❀김포안중 마사지☁김포태국마사지 가격ノ김포처음 안마방ワ김포일본 성인 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    논산안마방 골뱅이
    광주출장안마 합천남성 왁싱 대전출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    김포출장안마✚예약금없는출장샵ネ김포호구포 마사지〖김포해변 마사지〗☻﹛김포수유역 아로마 마사지﹜←김포vip 마사지├김포고등학생 안마방☀김포수안보 안마방▒김포조건 출장♥김포여인숙 여자

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.김포출장안마김포송강동 마사지◀김포향남 안마방☏﹛김포두통 마사지﹜김포스즈하라 에미리 마사지♣김포정읍 안마방╬ 김포안마방 풋잡┯김포가오슝 마사지♬webdesigners.xyz예약김포구글재펜ღ김포강남 안마방 내상╪(김포마사지 사정)김포아로마 마사지 팬티ホ김포안마방 여자┞김포독산동 마사지↛김포마사지 앱×김포출장안마영월여관 녀김포여교사 마사지○김포상봉동 안마방⊿{김포pj 안마방}김포일본 성인 마사지♦김포마포구청 마사지✪김포냥이 마사지»김포홍진호 안마방“김포김해 모텔 추천☆김포양곡 안마방♀『김포안마방 실장』김포림프 마사지╄김포로미로미 마사지▌김포순천 타이 마사지↦김포강서구 마사지☼김포의정부 모텔 가격☠김포오류동 마사지コ《김포광명사거리 안마방》김포타이 마사지 꿀팁▦김포삼성역 마사지キ김포안마방 시간➢김포수안보 마사지▫김포밀양 안마방♝김포출장미인아가씨ψ‹김포라오스 마사지 2차›김포문산 마사지☆김포곤지암 마사지↚김포낙성대 마사지♂김포방콕 변형 마사지◢출장부르는법보령불알 마사지예약김포방이동 마사지⇌김포칠곡 마사지⇩{김포광주 스타 안마방}김포마사지 남친☀김포판교 마사지★김포호치민 마사지☊김포중국마사지 후기➹김포출장안마김포출장안마바카라사이트.xyz김포기획 마사지김포일본 보빨김포등 마사지 방법김포송탄 안마방김포출장안마김포전신 마사지♐김포타이 아로마 마사지♧(김포현풍 마사지)김포남포동 안마방➚김포춘천 마사지 후기的김포타이 아로마 마사지♪김포용인 마사지♛임실안마방 퇴폐

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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