24시출장샵
  • 김포토렌트 마사지
  • 구미출장안마
  • 수원출장샵
  • 인제신천 안마방
  • 김포출장안마♥예약금없는출장샵⇜김포호구포 마사지〖김포일본 안마방 야동〗╩﹛김포마산 모텔 추천﹜➽김포의정부 안마방 추천☼김포남성 왁싱➛김포동인천 마사지♡김포남친 마사지♦김포군산 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    온라인카지노
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    김포출장안마⇁24시출장샵チ김포호구포 마사지〖김포광주 대딸방〗]﹛김포누들누 드﹜♡김포안마방 대전↝김포안산 마사지╩김포장기동 안마방0김포일본식 안마방▽김포모유 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 군산호치민 리버티 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    김포출장안마124시출장샵☇김포호구포 마사지〖김포고등학생 안마방〗☈﹛김포안마방 성병﹜↼김포마사지 영어ⓔ김포관자놀이 마사지╆김포부산 모텔 추천☟김포부산 안마방 추천♩김포가슴 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    김포출장안마╏출장부르는법☺김포호구포 마사지〖김포안마방 애널〗⇁﹛김포안마방 잠﹜♭김포뱃살 마사지◐김포피부 마사지ワ김포창원 안마방U김포일본 마사지 노모╩김포제목없음 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 바카라사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    김포출장안마♀24시출장샵◑김포호구포 마사지〖김포마사지 카페〗├﹛김포y존 마사지﹜⊙김포천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ♨김포서산 마사지♟김포속초 안마방的김포일본 마사지 품번⇡김포별내 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 하동춘천 태국 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    김포출장안마的출장부르는법▶김포호구포 마사지〖김포안마방 키스〗◙﹛김포양재역 마사지﹜✓김포까치산 마사지♡김포공유 마사지→김포안마방 avi▨김포송탄 안마방⊿김포사각턱 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대구출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    김포출장안마김포비키니 마사지

  • 거창경찰 안마방
  • 김포목동 마사지
  • 김포출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    김포출장안마◊예약♥김포호구포 마사지〖김포마곡 마사지〗⇔﹛김포예약금 없는 출장﹜★김포출장샵안내☪김포신림 마사지╎김포역삼역 안마방➻김포라페 안마방↢김포영주 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 포항국 노 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    청주안마방 단속시간 포항출장안마 진도콜걸후기
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 바카라사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    김포출장안마θ예약금없는출장샵⇟김포호구포 마사지〖김포조건 만남 카페〗ζ﹛김포림프절 마사지﹜ラ김포송파 안마방➻김포연동 안마방⇞김포후불제 출장샵⇈김포카메라 마사지ウ김포안마방 도촬

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 해남마송 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    김포출장안마┳24시출장샵☞김포호구포 마사지〖김포덕천 마사지〗↿﹛김포동탄 마사지 후기﹜➼김포면목동 안마방↳김포콜걸후기├김포안마방 스탭ツ김포진주시 안마방║김포엄지 눈 근육 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    예천중국 마사지 후기
    영월마사지 xlsx.xyz 마산마사지 방법
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    김포출장안마ソ출장부르는법»김포호구포 마사지〖김포아로마 마사지 팬티〗♛﹛김포일베 모텔﹜↙김포제주도 안마방♡김포출장외국인¤김포광진구 안마방シ김포위례 마사지♦김포오일 마사지 av

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    김포출장안마◐예약금없는출장샵↛김포호구포 마사지〖김포탄트라 마사지〗χ﹛김포텀블러 안마방﹜═김포라페스타 안마방→김포사당 안마방◦김포사상구 마사지┃김포av 마사지 추천✉김포신림 아로마 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 전주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 진주대전 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    김포출장안마┖24시출장샵☷김포호구포 마사지〖김포안마방 밥〗┡﹛김포전립선 마사지 야동﹜☲김포19 마사지☜김포세r시 마사지⇪김포안마방 아쿠아♥김포목욕탕 마사지❤김포안마방 몰 카

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    김포출장안마✲출장부르는법♟김포호구포 마사지〖김포냉정 안마방〗♕﹛김포라오스 마사지 2차﹜✚김포싱가포르 마사지╦김포익산 모텔 추천▷김포얼굴 경락 마사지➴김포마사지 종류♥김포모텔 걸

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 고령상남동 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 온라인카지노 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 구미마사지 서비스 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 광주출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    김포출장안마⇋24시출장샵➚김포호구포 마사지〖김포출장가격〗]﹛김포동두천 마사지﹜ノ김포부산 모텔 출장┼김포고환 마사지⇩김포안마방 엄마➧김포강서구 안마방ヒ김포안마방 질내사정

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 군산출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: cpod.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    김포출장안마♔예약금없는출장샵♧김포호구포 마사지〖김포부산역 모텔 추천〗↪﹛김포인계동 안마방 후기﹜ヤ김포양재역 마사지╧김포안마방 홈런▤김포송파 마사지☰김포목포 안마방♦김포안마방 핸드폰

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부천천안 대딸방
    군산출장안마 목포부산 연산동 출장 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    김포출장안마➦예약ト김포호구포 마사지〖김포마사지 몰 카〗•﹛김포부산 해운대 출장﹜▐김포안마방 청소년π김포역삼역 안마방↧김포사당 마사지»김포덕소 안마방♕김포서귀포 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.김포출장안마김포몰카 안마방❃김포안마방 대딸❖﹛김포마사지 맛사지﹜김포출장 마사지 썰☽김포마포구청 마사지❤김포전민동 마사지▣김포안마방 모닝콜↦광주출장샵예약금없는출장샵김포여성 전용 아로마 마사지☆김포신림동 마사지▒(김포천안 안마방)김포여성 전용 마사지 알바═김포전립선 마사지 하는 법↩김포아비게일 마사지 토렌트ネ김포안산 안마방▒김포출장안마화순마사지 남친김포타이 마사지 토렌트┟김포고잔동 마사지❄{김포신당동 안마방}김포광명 마사지マ김포일본 해수욕장 마사지キ김포출장오피☶김포마사지 영상☈김포광주 안마방 후기┕김포나고야 여성전용 마사지❄『김포안마방 cctv』김포강남 안마방 후기❤김포모란 안마방╭김포여성 전신 마사지♩김포구의동 안마방♨김포타이 마사지 가격╉김포죽전 안마방▌《김포다낭 vip 마사지》김포제천 안마방δ김포홍대 마사지π김포부산 출장↳김포op↳김포상무지구 안마방◁김포club 마사지├‹김포성남 안마방›김포연산동 마사지┭김포구의 마사지↷김포강원도 안마방↨김포출장색시미녀언니ア예약영광가슴 마사지예약금없는출장샵김포안구 마사지★김포안마방 vs 오피⇁{김포서산시 안마방}김포안마방 떡ⓔ김포안마방 투샷❧김포국산 마사지✄김포전주 마사지♤김포출장안마김포출장안마anma4you.xyz김포안면 비대칭 마사지김포가산 마사지김포여고생 마사지김포산남동 마사지김포출장안마김포서울 조건 만남ム김포원주 안마방☪(김포거제도 모텔 추천)김포출장 사기コ김포대구 모텔 아가씨✉김포서울 안마방 추천☇김포은평구 마사지⇉경주주안 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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