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  • 오산콜걸ミ출장부르는법↓오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산사상 안마방〗囍《오산여관 녀》▒오산정자역 안마방┍오산산본 마사지メ오산안마방 텀블♥오산여성 마사지 후기✡오산사상구 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    온라인카지노
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    오산콜걸┾예약‿오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산성기 마사지〗➼《오산엉덩이 마사지》⇗오산콜걸W오산천안 안마☞오산팔자주름 마사지β오산일반인 마사지 torrent☁오산마사지 성추행

    The governments of more than 190 nations 밀양안마방 분수 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    오산콜걸♐예약금없는출장샵☆오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산니시미야 코노미 마사지〗╄《오산태국 마사지 종류》╠ 오산시흥동 안마방╗오산정선 마사지┎오산출장샵예약포항►오산안마방 튜브●오산가슴커지는 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    오산콜걸☏출장부르는법①오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산군대 안마방〗✗《오산마사지 동영상》✍오산천안 마사지↝오산태국 마사지 서비스↺오산안마방 부산☽오산안마방 전화번호▒오산진해 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 부산출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    오산콜걸➛출장부르는법➡오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산후불제 출장샵〗◑《오산사가정 마사지》⇟오산마산 마사지┊오산동작구 안마방┋오산일산 모텔 가격┱오산출장최강미녀┐오산수안보 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 나주용인 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    오산콜걸ρ예약☠오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산안마방 내상〗┖《오산타이 마사지 아로마》⇤오산러브어게인 만남→오산호치민 마사지 추천↙오산강동 마사지◐오산서현 안마방┎오산여인숙 가격

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 포항출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    오산콜걸⇂예약㊣오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산레이크호텔 마사지〗モ《오산김포 타이 마사지》✡오산서산 안마방♥오산출장가격ユ오산이발소 마사지♮오산응암 마사지☄오산광혜원 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 옥천안마방 백마 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    울산출장안마
    동두천목포 여관 구미출장안마 영광강동구 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 창원출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    오산콜걸♮예약✿오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산여성 출장 마사지〗]《오산천안역 여관》♥오산신림 아로마 마사지┣오산대전 커플 마사지π오산안마방 만화⇄오산휴게텔 안마방 차이➹오산마사지 간판구분

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 강진실제 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    오산콜걸◘예약╳오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산안마방 한국〗┛《오산부산마사지》↔오산병점 안마방⇊오산청주 안마방✕오산가락시장 마사지☂오산jav 마사지➦오산안양 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    담양신림 모텔
    고창손가락 마사지 군산출장안마 김포두정동 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    오산콜걸♩예약↾오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산검단사거리 안마방〗♨《오산덕계 마사지》]오산안마방 대전⇥오산안마방 아영이 토렌트▼오산안마방 섹스├오산안마방 빡촌コ오산상무지구 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대구출장샵 .

    오산콜걸↛예약금없는출장샵┓오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산국 노〗♪ 《오산전립선 마사지 기구》⇀오산왁싱 마사지ワ오산광주 모텔υ오산대딸방→오산제주시 안마방►오산아비게일 마사지 토렌트

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 온라인카지노 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 진주부산 모텔 촌 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    오산콜걸⇚24시출장샵◆오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산가슴 마사지〗▥《오산여자 부르는 가격》⇟오산안마방 발기☀오산콜걸강추♨오산안마방 홈런❤오산출장 타이 마사지ク오산미시 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    오산콜걸➼예약금없는출장샵↕오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산마사지 노출〗▄《오산로미 마사지》☃오산다낭 마사지 vip▤오산콜걸☏오산덕소 안마방✣오산송탄 여관╖오산안마방 빡촌

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 청주포항 타이 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 구미출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 합천전주 모텔 추천 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that carpanda.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    오산콜걸┒24시출장샵➸오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산상남동 마사지〗→《오산얼굴 경락 마사지》✌오산성기 마사지♘오산출장소이스☇오산전립선 마사지◐오산홍방장 안마방┝오산안마방 위험

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, tongyanglife.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    오산콜걸▣예약☀오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산미금역 마사지〗❖《오산출장맛사지》√오산티켓 썰┕오산안마방 혼자↡오산마사지 배우기⇟오산한국 마사지┣오산안마방 도촬

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    순천심천 마사지
    구미출장안마 순천림프 마사지 금기 사항 대구출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    오산콜걸的예약♪오산부산 안마방 가격〖오산다낭 vip 마사지〗┰《오산수원역 마사지》⇙오산눈 마사지⊙오산안마방 분수▪오산해변 마사지ツ오산일산 타이 마사지ο오산남친 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.오산콜걸오산한국 마사지⇥오산오피걸↳《오산새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트》오산야 동 마사지◎오산러시아 밤문화✖오산수원역 마사지♖오산해운대 마사지┮수원출장안마예약금없는출장샵오산안마방 풋잡♤오산장전동 마사지┱《오산모란 안마방》오산출장녀♨오산덕계 마사지╣오산고주파 마사지μ오산상추 안마방╛오산콜걸광주마사지 남친오산태평역 안마방»오산중앙동 안마방♐‹오산후불제 출장샵›오산성남 마사지♨오산강동 마사지ヌ오산충주 마사지☺오산출장 후기┻오산안동 안마방╜오산쥬니공주 안마방⇩〔오산금정역 안마방〕오산안마방 아영이▥오산시흥동 안마방⇥오산안마방 가격○오산중리동 안마방┳오산마사지 초대남╅오산일산 모텔 추천♕【오산신촌 마사지】오산분당 마사지╚오산일본 마사지 품번√오산안산 조건 만남»오산송파 안마방⇜오산동암역 마사지┖오산24시간 안마방⇣〔오산백마 안마방〕오산한대앞 마사지ⓥ오산신데렐라 안마방★오산콜걸후기☁오산선입금 없는 출장 만남✣출장부르는법거창아로마 마사지 팬티24시출장샵오산여자친구 마사지➚오산안마방 24시간U﹝오산서양 마사지﹞오산김해 모텔 추천➧오산서면 마사지↪오산중국 마사지 종류◇오산타이 아로마 마사지⇌오산콜걸오산콜걸tongyanglife.xyz오산동대문구 안마방오산양산 안마방오산전립선 마사지 하는 법오산태국여행 마사지오산콜걸오산연예인 마사지⇊오산팔 마사지◑〈오산안마방 가성비〉오산음경 마사지〓오산타이 출장 마사지↔오산노원 마사지 추천─오산검암 안마방⇛경상북도고양이 변비 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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