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  • 광주출장안마
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  • 안양콜걸⇚24시출장샵╪안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양안마방 쓰리섬〗↮‹안양유성 안마방 후기›モ안양성장판 마사지▒안양송우리 안마방◢안양마사지 1위 작품➶안양구의동 안마방☃안양구의 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    부산출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    안양콜걸✖출장부르는법«안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양요방형근 마사지〗╚‹안양천호동 안마방›↿안양운서동 안마방☍안양피파 안마방“안양출장마사지エ안양불알 마사지☛안양조건 만남 서울

    The governments of more than 190 nations 함평동대구 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    안양콜걸▦예약ェ안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양을지로 안마방〗◦‹안양새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트›♐안양찌라시 썰✂안양도쿄 안마방✤안양체코 마사지 fc2☑안양pornhub 안마방♖안양대구 안마방 후기

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    안양콜걸╔예약금없는출장샵☺안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양안마방 똥꼬〗↙‹안양마사지 tumblr›♨안양신천 모텔◤안양상봉동 안마방⊿안양마사지 3만원│안양새로운 안마방 아가씨┢안양서울 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 진주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    안양콜걸✒예약금없는출장샵●안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양마사지 의자〗➹‹안양턱관절 마사지›↠안양양평 마사지❀안양원룸 출장☂안양태국 마사지 서비스┫안양외국인 안마방☆안양안마방 튜브

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 인천출장서비스보장 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    안양콜걸❈예약❉안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양대전 커플 마사지〗╄‹안양안마방 안마›╦안양모란 안마방▥안양지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지◎안양마사지 나무위키ζ안양콜걸강추╚안양하복대 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – smatoos.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    안양콜걸▶24시출장샵★안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양목포 모텔 추천〗§‹안양마사지 레전드 품번›┸안양안마방 빨리싸면ソ안양포르치오 마사지┓안양전립선 마사지 방법╭안양태국 마사지 torrent◦안양안마방 위키

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 경상남도울산 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 부산출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    수원출장샵
    진해파타야 마사지 군산출장안마 홍성강남역 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 전주출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    안양콜걸↸예약금없는출장샵◇안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양video.fc2.com 마사지〗◆‹안양강남역 안마방›⇦안양출장 타이마사지⇡안양대전 안마방 추천✈안양대구 동대구역 모텔☇안양논현동 안마방△안양카톡 출장

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 포천철산 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    안양콜걸✘출장부르는법⇁안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양의정부 대딸방〗⇎‹안양마사지 롤러›☻안양카톡◑안양게이 마사지♀ 안양경마 시간☠안양태국 마사지═안양방콕 마사지 추천

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    포천콜걸출장마사지
    담양흉쇄유돌근 마사지 바카라사이트 괴산다방 콜
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    안양콜걸▐예약┠안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양당진 마사지〗◑‹안양만짜이 마사지›▶안양오피스 걸❤안양발마사지♥안양진주 마사지π안양오피스텔 아가씨○안양서울 안마방 추천

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 천안출장샵 .

    안양콜걸╞출장부르는법☀안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양로드샵 단속〗⇛‹안양태백 마사지›╟안양대만 마사지☪안양동탄 마사지╫안양안마방 키스▷안양고딩 안마방↺안양섹스 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And okbari.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 군산전립선 마사지 야동 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    안양콜걸⇐예약금없는출장샵╉안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양홍대 마사지〗♪ ‹안양동암 마사지›╞안양대전 커플 마사지☭안양안마방 역립タ안양마사지 동영상ⓔ안양안마방 몰카◘안양태국 전통 마사지 단속

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    안양콜걸♚출장부르는법↪안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양제주도 마사지〗☆‹안양온양 마사지›»안양안마방 풋잡↤안양북창동 후기♚안양군산 모텔 추천‿안양목포 여관☽안양출장샵 예약금

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 경상북도인덕원 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 횡성출장녀 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 온라인카지노 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    안양콜걸╢24시출장샵➻안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양안마방 동창〗↗‹안양칭다오 마사지›▬안양역삼 마사지☼안양일본 안마방 야동レ안양경주 동천동 안마방♢안양대학동 마사지✎안양근육통 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 창원출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: undersite.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 온라인카지노 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    안양콜걸┎출장부르는법☭안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양일본식 마사지〗♦‹안양안마방 24시간›♟안양후불제 출장샵▀안양구미 아로마 마사지☊안양태국마사지 후기┃안양안마방 전화◑안양경동맥 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    양평안마방 움짤
    창원출장샵 화순안마방 대화 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    안양콜걸⊙24시출장샵↥안양체코 마사지 토렌트〖안양군대 안마방〗φ‹안양출장 마사지 후기›✌안양진주 가격▣안양대전 마사지▥안양속초 모텔 추천⇗안양출장업소╅안양황제 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.안양콜걸안양마사지 구분☝안양신중동 마사지☝‹안양속초 모텔 추천›안양정읍 안마방⊥안양안마방 사귄╭안양안마방 아가씨↪안양여관 미시◐온라인카지노예약금없는출장샵안양산본 마사지☆안양평택 안마방♦〈안양용암동 모텔〉안양여자친구 마사지┯안양구의 마사지◥안양얼굴 경락 마사지◦안양태국마사지 불법囍안양콜걸포항부평 에이스 안마방안양fc2 오일 마사지┳안양오송 마사지✓【안양판교 마사지】안양안마방 몰 카▌안양보령 안마방↼안양눈 마사지 기계➻안양타이마사지♬안양대전 모텔 가격┌안양삿포로 안마방✄﹝안양fc2 안마방﹞안양잠실 안마방ミ안양안마방 안마ミ안양안마방 풋잡╖안양안마방 몰카 torrent]안양안마방 성병╟안양출장샵예약イ〔안양오피걸〕안양목동 마사지┯안양울산 동구 마사지➹안양송탄 안마방╗안양창원 안마방⇏안양복부 마사지➶안양거제도 여관┠{안양대전 모텔 다방}안양여인숙 여자╚안양서울 안마방 위치↔안양무한샷 안마방⇂안양경기 광주 마사지♚예약평택인덕원 마사지24시출장샵안양후두 마사지◘안양순천 타이 마사지╂[안양검단사거리 안마방]안양잇몸 마사지┣안양산본 마사지 후기┩안양남성전용✥안양태국여행 마사지§안양콜걸안양콜걸대전출장샵안양안마방 아영이 토렌트안양강릉 타이 마사지안양서혜부 마사지 효능안양아로마 마사지 팬티안양콜걸안양연산 안마방♀ 안양안양역 안마방♮(안양상남동 마사지)안양포르치오 마사지ⓔ안양상록수역 안마방⇄안양태국 에스코트✄안양오창 안마방☀구미대만 호텔 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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