강릉출장샵 24시출장샵┬강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉부산 모텔〕コ‹강릉영천 안마방›❃강릉성내동 안마방➚강릉예약금 없는 출장 샵╠ 강릉video.fc2.com 마사지マ강릉구글재펜☆강릉처음 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

창원출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

강릉출장샵↤출장부르는법┥강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉안마방 미시〕⇟‹강릉트랜스젠더 안마방›✄강릉남친 안마방➴강릉안산 줄리엣 마사지▷강릉산본 안마방チ강릉금촌 안마방✆강릉video fc2 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 함평출장 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

강릉출장샵☠예약금없는출장샵☎강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉마사지 수면〕♐‹강릉청도 마사지›↕강릉신도림 마사지♚강릉합성동 안마방▣강릉뒷목 마사지⊙강릉다낭 에덴 마사지✓강릉마사지 카페

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

강릉출장샵♣예약⇉강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉오산 안마방〕✥‹강릉강릉 타이 마사지›☷강릉대딸방⊙강릉강남 타이마사지♩강릉연수구 안마방┵강릉마사지 레전드✡강릉영화 히든 토렌트

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories phyangdeok.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

강릉출장샵☼출장부르는법◆강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉섹시 마사지〕╇‹강릉모텔 보도›↸강릉음부 마사지┋강릉왕십리 안마방╤강릉안마방 가는법◐강릉김해 출장 마사지⇛강릉안마방 검색

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 창원대전 안마방 후기 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

강릉출장샵➻24시출장샵☭강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉관자놀이 마사지〕┖‹강릉예약금 없는 출장 샵›↨강릉출장만족보장♜강릉존슨즈 베이비 오일 마사지─강릉안마방 다녀온◊강릉타이 마사지 꿀팁♖강릉호치민 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

강릉출장샵강릉천안 카페

  • 영광구미 모텔
  • 강릉고양 마사지
  • 강릉출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    강릉출장샵☼예약금없는출장샵☠강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉별내 안마방〕☆‹강릉하당 마사지›╪강릉안마방 24시간⇤강릉이천 마사지ェ강릉불알 마사지⇢강릉신포동 마사지☼강릉사이판 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 동인천안마방 초이스.mp4 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    광주출장안마
    삼척아로마 마사지 부작용 egw.xyz 여수몰카 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 창원출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    강릉출장샵♀24시출장샵╊강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉부평 에이스 안마방〕セ‹강릉콜걸후기›ミ강릉모텔 출장안마↩강릉미시출장안마☺강릉수내역 마사지♘강릉마사지 의자✃강릉부산 서면 출장

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 하남안산 안마방 추천 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    강릉출장샵☍예약금없는출장샵↳강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉나고야 여성전용 마사지〕➽‹강릉의정부 모텔 추천›↗강릉출장 마사지 썰δ강릉안마방 에이스➚강릉체코 마사지 토렌트的강릉송탄 여관⇛강릉마사지 썰

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장샵 .

    군포구미 여관
    의성마사지 흥분 gogotown.xyz 수원서울 여인숙 가격
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    강릉출장샵☈예약금없는출장샵ロ강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉아빠의 젊은 애인과 끈적한 마사지〕ヒ‹강릉진주 가격›υ강릉아줌마 마사지⊥강릉모란 안마방♧강릉정자역 마사지↖강릉텀블러 여관➵강릉이진호 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 목포출장샵 .

    강릉출장샵⇎예약금없는출장샵♬강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉방이동 여관〕✎‹강릉안마방 마무리›♂강릉출장 선입금╀강릉안산 안마방♧강릉울산 삼산동 안마방➹강릉출장 선입금⇪강릉콜걸강추

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 사천홍성 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    강릉출장샵﹌24시출장샵◦강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉태국 마사지 torrent〕⇩‹강릉부평 안마방›✚강릉대학로 마사지⇥강릉선입금 출장☒강릉마사지 사진⇚강릉오산 타이 마사지⇗강릉울산 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    강릉출장샵♠예약↕강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉일본 마사지 노모〕✃‹강릉마곡 마사지›✆강릉콜걸출장마사지♬강릉문정동 마사지☂강릉여인숙 여자♧강릉마사지 어플➨강릉안마방 코스

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 김천답십리 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 대구출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 온라인카지노 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 평택부산 사상 출장 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that anma4you.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    강릉출장샵❧예약금없는출장샵⇌강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉마사지 수면실〕ユ‹강릉해변 마사지›ノ강릉마산 모텔 추천☻강릉금천구 마사지☪강릉마사지 사정0강릉서귀포 마사지♭강릉흉부 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 바카라사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    강릉출장샵✡예약↥강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉남순 마사지〕☪‹강릉호텔 걸›☆강릉마사지 19☼강릉안마방 동영상☱강릉성서 안마방╧강릉천안 안마╂강릉여성전용 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    대전천안안마
    카지노사이트 고흥중국마사지 후기 포항출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    강릉출장샵▶24시출장샵☒강릉영등포 마사지〔강릉안마방 오픈시간〕★‹강릉안마방 왕가슴녀›▲강릉서울 조건 만남➼강릉상주 안마방┧강릉동두천 마사지▨강릉대전 모텔 다방⇂강릉안마방 팁

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.강릉출장샵강릉중동 안마방♪강릉탑 클래스£‹강릉불알 마사지›강릉마사지 롤러✈강릉오일 마사지 야동┋강릉소라넷 마사지♣강릉선릉 마사지┴카지노사이트출장부르는법강릉안마방 알바 썰╧강릉전립선 마사지 하는 법➧[강릉덕계 마사지]강릉사각근 마사지┪강릉원룸 출장ღ강릉안마방 일베웃강릉부산 타이 마사지♪강릉출장샵구미러시아 마사지강릉전주 모텔 가격┪강릉안마방 2:1♕〖강릉안마방 할머니〗강릉타이 마사지 단속1강릉콜걸추천»강릉카톡 조건╚강릉고등학생 안마방➧강릉출장마사지샵1강릉안마방 카운터☞〔강릉원주 마사지〕강릉검단 안마방★강릉다낭 에덴 마사지↨강릉태국 에스코트 비용┾강릉역출장안마リ강릉아로마마사지 꿀팁ヌ강릉눈붓기빼는 마사지┛﹛강릉전립선 마사지 영상﹜강릉붕따우 마사지⇜강릉해운대 안마방☆강릉하당 마사지┴강릉대전 안마방 추천⇠강릉안마방 bj♛강릉크리스마스 안마방☀﹛강릉조건 만남 카페﹜강릉스포츠마사지➶강릉남친 안마방┺강릉대구 모텔 가격ユ강릉출장녀⇦예약김포눈 마사지 기계예약강릉신사역 마사지✄강릉질 마사지√[강릉일산 모텔]강릉마사지 노출❄강릉예약금 없는 출장 샵▧강릉제주도 안마방┌강릉안마방 videoφ강릉출장샵강릉출장샵gogotown.xyz강릉칠곡 마사지강릉서울역 안마방강릉지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지강릉출장 타이 마사지강릉출장샵강릉천안안마ロ강릉얼굴 마사지↢(강릉안마방 건마)강릉영종도 안마방▀강릉마산 마사지♝강릉대구 모텔 가격⊕강릉천안 출장 만남☆동해안마방 무료야동

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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